Kuhn structure of scientific revolutions online dating
Crisis is followed by a scientific revolution if the existing paradigm is superseded by a rival.Kuhn claimed that science guided by one paradigm would be ‘incommensurable’ with science developed under a different paradigm, by which is meant that there is no common measure for assessing the different scientific theories.This thesis of incommensurability, developed at the same time by Feyerabend, rules out certain kinds of comparison of the two theories and consequently rejects some traditional views of scientific development, such as the view that later science builds on the knowledge contained within earlier theories, or the view that later theories are closer approximations to the truth than earlier theories.Most of Kuhn's subsequent work in philosophy was spent in articulating and developing the ideas in first aroused interest among social scientists, although it did in due course create the interest among philosophers that Kuhn had intended (and also before long among a much wider academic and general audience).What is the process by which a new candidate for paradigm replaces its predecessor?Some of the material on this page and on pages accessible from this page is protected by copyright.
Please be keenly aware that one risks legal liability for "unfair use" of copyrighted material.Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist, historian, and philosopher of science and who wrote extensively on the history of science and developed several important notions in the philosophy of science. Analysis • Analytic–synthetic distinction • A priori and a posteriori • Causality • Commensurability • Consilience • Construct • Creative synthesis • Demarcation problem • Empirical evidence • Explanatory power • Fact • Falsifiability • Feminist method • Ignoramus et ignorabimus • Inductive reasoning • Intertheoretic reduction • Inquiry • Nature • Objectivity • Observation • Paradigm • Problem of induction • Scientific law • Scientific method • Scientific revolution • Scientific theory • Testability • Theory choice • Theory-ladenness • Underdetermination • Unity of science Coherentism • Confirmation holism • Constructive empiricism • Constructive realism • Constructivist epistemology • Contextualism • Conventionalism • Deductive-nomological model • Hypothetico-deductive model • Inductionism • Epistemological anarchism • Evolutionism • Fallibilism • Foundationalism • Instrumentalism • Pragmatism • Model-dependent realism • Naturalism • Physicalism • Positivism/reductionism/determinism • Rationalism/empiricism • Received view/semantic view of theories • Scientific realism/anti-realism • Scientific essentialism • Scientific formalism • Scientific skepticism • Scientism • Structuralism • Uniformitarianism • Vitalism Alchemy • Criticism of science • Epistemology • Faith and rationality • History and philosophy of science • History of science • History of evolutionary thought • Logic • Metaphysics • Pseudoscience • Relationship between religion and science • Rhetoric of science • Sociology of scientific knowledge • Sociology of scientific ignorance Immanuel Kant • Friedrich Schelling • William Whewell • Auguste Comte • John Stuart Mill • Herbert Spencer • Wilhelm Wundt • Charles Sanders Peirce • Wilhelm Windelband • Henri Poincaré • Pierre Duhem • Rudolf Steiner • Karl Pearson Alfred North Whitehead • Bertrand Russell • Albert Einstein • Otto Neurath • C. Broad • Michael Polanyi • Hans Reichenbach • Rudolf Carnap • Karl Popper • Carl Gustav Hempel • W. Since the following of rules (of logic, of scientific method, etc.) was regarded as the of rationality, Kuhn's claim that scientists do not employ rules in reaching their decisions appeared tantamount to the claim that science is irrational.This was highlighted by his rejection of the distinction between discovery and justification (denying that we can distinguish between the psychological process of thinking up an idea and the logical process of justifying its claim to truth) and his emphasis on incommensurability (the claim that certain kinds of comparison between theories are impossible).